Inhalation of hydrogen is the most direct treatment method. Hydrogen can be inhaled through a ventilator, mask or nasal cannula. Since hydrogen inhaled has a quick effect, it may be suitable for combating acute oxidative stress. In particular, the inhalation of hydrogen gas does not affect blood pressure; on the other hand, in the process of treating myocardial infarction, drug infusion increases blood pressure and causes serious obstacles. Excessive oxidative stress during reperfusion can cause tissue damage. It is worth noting that most antioxidants cannot reach the infarct risk area before reperfusion begins. As mentioned earlier, even if there is no blood flow, hydrogen can reach dangerous areas through rapid diffusion. Clinical studies have found that inhalation of 3-4% hydrogen has no effect on physiological parameters, indicating that breathing hydrogen has no side effects.
Research: Drug delivery methods for medical applications of hydrogen
Drinking hydrogen water
For the continuous intake of hydrogen in daily life to prevent diseases, inhalation of hydrogen is not suitable and convenient. On the contrary, hydrogen water may be more convenient because it is portable, easy to use, and safe. The solubility of hydrogen in water at room temperature can reach 0.8 mM and does not affect the pH of the water.
Hydrogen water can be prepared by several methods: dissolving hydrogen in water under high pressure, electrolyzing water to generate hydrogen, and reacting metal magnesium or its hydride with water to generate hydrogen. Hydrogen can pass through the walls of glass and plastic pipes in a short time, while aluminum containers can store hydrogen for a long time.
In short, for experiments, hydrogen can be dissolved in water to reach a supersaturation level under high pressure, and saturated hydrogen water can be stored in an aluminum bag without dead space under normal pressure. Experimental mice can freely take in hydrogen water through a sealed glass tube. The device is equipped with a spherical roller to prevent hydrogen from overflowing. Replace the pipeline with fresh hydrogen water at the same time every day.
Gavage rats with saturated hydrogen water, and the concentration of hydrogen in the blood can reach the micromolar level. In addition, rats were intragastrically given hydrogen water with a concentration of 0.8 mmol/l at 15 ml/kg, and the hydrogen in the liver was monitored by a hydrogen electrode (Figure 6).
After adult volunteers drank hydrogen water, the content of hydrogen in their exhaled breath was measured by gas chromatography. Intake of hydrogen water can quickly increase the hydrogen content in the exhaled breath, reaching the maximum after 10 minutes, and then returning to the baseline level within 60 minutes. The hydrogen in the hydrogen water will be lost during the experiment, and it can lose 3% or less of the total amount. The hydrogen released through the skin accounts for about 0.1%. According to the conservation of mass, about 40% of the hydrogen intake is consumed by the body. This indicates that at least part of the exogenous hydrogen is consumed by oxygen radicals, such as hydroxyl radicals.
Injection of hydrogen saline
Hydrogen can be given by intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen saline, which is very effective in animal models.
An open, prospective, non-randomized study conducted by Nagatani et al. administered intravenously to 38 patients admitted to the hospital for acute ischemic stroke. All patients were given intravenous hydrogen saline immediately after the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. The results of the study show that intravenous injection of hydrogen saline is safe for patients with acute cerebral infarction, including those receiving tissue plasminogen activator therapy.
For rats, hydrogen water, hydrogen saline, and hydrogen were given by oral, intraperitoneal or intravenous injection, and inhalation, respectively. Tissue homogenization was performed in a closed tube to obtain a sample, and the hydrogen concentration was detected by gas chromatography. After oral and intraperitoneal injection, the hydrogen concentration reached its peak at 5 min, while the peak time for intravenous injection was 1 min. The above results indicate that all three hydrogen delivery methods can reach most organs or blood.
Direct ingestion of molecular hydrogen through diffusion: eye drops, bathing and cosmetics [Editor’s note: here is the function of hydrogen-rich water, not only drinking water, but also washing your face, applying wounds, etc.]
Hydrogen-containing eye drops are made by dissolving hydrogen in saline and can be directly applied to the surface of the eye.
Hydrogen can easily penetrate the skin and reach all parts of the body through the bloodstream. In daily life, taking a hydrogen bath is also a way to let the body take in hydrogen. Detecting the amount of hydrogen in the exhaled gas found that hydrogen can enter the whole body after taking a hydrogen bath for 10 minutes. In Japan, commercial products have emerged as powders that can generate hydrogen for bathing.
The use of hydrogen-containing preservation solution in heart transplantation can effectively reduce myocardial injury caused by cold ischemia and reperfusion. This kind of hydrogen-assisted organ cold storage device is worthy of further research on its application in the treatment and prevention of organ transplantation.
Intake hydrogen through the mother
Hydrogen intake can prevent hippocampal damage in offspring caused by ischemia/reperfusion during pregnancy. The experiment briefly blocked the bilateral uterine and ovarian arteries of pregnant rats to study the effect of hydrogen on the hippocampus injury of fetal rats caused by maternal ischemia/reperfusion. From 2 days before the start of the experiment, the mother was allowed to take in saturated hydrogen water freely until natural delivery. The experiment found that the intake of saturated hydrogen water by the mother significantly increased the hydrogen concentration of the placenta, and the oxidative damage of the placenta after the mother's ischemia/reperfusion was also significantly reduced. The growth and development of neonates in the ischemia/reperfusion group was retarded, while that in the hydrogen group was significantly improved. Ingestion of hydrogen by the mother during pregnancy can improve the oxidative stress and reference memory of the offspring after ischemia/reperfusion, and return it to the level of the sham operation group. This finding supports the view that hydrogen intake by the mother can help prevent offspring damage caused by oxidative stress.
The diversity of hydrogen administration methods has brought great convenience to the development of hydrogen-related products. At present, medical and health products related to hydrogen include hydrogen breathing machines, hydrogen water machines, hydrogen water, medicines that release hydrogen, and hydrogen hemodialysis solutions. , Hydrogen water for bathing or medicine, beauty products. In terms of animals and plants, some people also develop related products from an agricultural perspective.
The basis for the safety and availability of hydrogen is the prerequisite for its application prospects. With the deepening of the medical foundation and clinical research of hydrogen, I believe that there will be a deeper understanding of its safety and application value. The application prospect of hydrogen is huge.